[ti:Aging Americans Means Shrinking Workforce] [by:www.myyhpf.tw] [00:00.00]更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM [00:00.01]Americans are getting older, and family size is getting smaller. [00:07.68]That means the United States will have less working adults in the future. [00:15.51]By 2030, twenty percent of U.S. residents will be 66 years of age or older. [00:26.61]That compares to 13 percent in 2010, and just under 10 percent in 1970. [00:37.26]The aging population could be a concern [00:41.63]if Americans expect to have an expanding population, says David Kelly. [00:49.76]He is with the investment company J.P. Morgan Asset Management. [00:56.49]"If you're investing in things like the housing industry or the auto industry [01:04.48]and you need an ever-growing population, then you have to adjust [01:11.12]to a world in which the U.S. population is growing more slowly," he said. [01:19.56]Different studies show that an aging population cuts into economic growth, [01:28.96]and older workers who stay on the job are often less productive than younger ones. [01:38.60]But as Americans are aging, [01:42.31]last year the birth rate nationwide dropped to its lowest level in 32 years. [01:51.95]Less than 3.8 million babies were born in 2018, [01:59.82]which is two percent less than the year before. [02:04.93]Taken as a whole, the population grew only six-tenths of one percent in 2018, [02:14.96]compared to 1.2 percent growth in the 1990s. [02:22.25]Kelly said the low birth rate is not necessarily bad news. [02:29.77]Looking beyond economics, [02:32.58]a growing world population could do more damage to Earth's environment. [02:40.06]He said that U.S. policy makers should plan for dealing with a smaller workforce. [02:49.63]"We really should adapt to a world of slow population growth [02:57.52]because it's clearly happening to us," he said. [03:02.10]What will replace human workers? [03:06.44]Like others, Kelly expects the lack of workers [03:12.24]to fuel the growth of robotics and artificial intelligence. [03:18.65]He said that Americans need to prepare [03:22.60]for the U.S. economic growth to slow a little in the future. [03:29.08]Another way to fix the shrinking workforce is to add more legal immigrants. [03:36.83]Immigrants usually arrive in the United States when they are of working age. [03:43.75]But this is not an easy solution, because the U.S. Congress [03:50.79]and President Donald Trump continue to disagree over how to deal with immigration issues. [03:59.89]The U.S. economy can easily make changes to deal with the slower population growth, Kelly said. [04:09.29]But he worries that politics could get in the way of solutions. [04:16.14]"The real question is a political question," he notes, [04:22.11]"because it seems even as our population matures in years, [04:28.27]it seems that our political system gets less mature in terms of thought process." [04:37.65]I'm Anne Ball. 更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM 重庆幸运农场开奖结果查